In itself it’s not a security measure based on any new technologies and it is something that is already used by some service providers handling extremely personal information. Google and Facebook to just name a few.
To put it simply 2-step verification builds an extra layer of security on top of your existing account verification system. In addition to the regular user name and password a user is given a unique one time password or PIN code generated for this specific session only. The password has to then be entered correctly to log in.
This makes it much more difficult for any attacker to impersonate someone else and access his accounts or resources as simply getting a hold of your regular password and user name will not be enough.
How are the one time passwords delivered?
There are a few different ways:
This is mostly used during the sign up process to make sure the e-mail address you claimed as your user name actually belongs to you. The reason why this is not widely used as a verification tool later on is that e-mail is generally not considered secure enough for password exchange. Also there is a high risk that in case someone has learned your passwords for any app, he has done it though gaining access to your primary e-mail account in the first place.
PIN code generating device
Used mostly by banks this verification method needs you to have a separate physical PIN or password generator which makes the whole process reasonably secure. This method however has a few major shortcomings – distribution and the cost of the physical devices being the most crucial ones.
Using mobile phone and SMS
The main reason this is the method used by Google as well as a few others is that it solves the security issues presented by e-mail and distribution/cost issues which come with dedicated password generating devices. At the same time it involves another physical device by making use of your phone, completely separating the two steps of the verification process.
Whenever a user wants to set up a mobile 2-step verification for an account, he has to tie his phone number to the account when setting it up and all one time passwords will be delivered to his personal number in the future.
Why should I care?
Phone numbers becoming an increasingly bigger part of our formal identity is an important trend for both web based service providers as well as the users.
General passwords are vulnerable
Leaks on a major scale have become more frequent last year. As data security keeps evolving, unfortunately so do methods of data theft. So leaks are unlikely to disappear.
On the other hand the number of passwords people have as part of their everyday life increases year by year. As a result we are re-using passwords, creating them to be memorable and therefore vulnerable.
Users pay more and more attention to data security
If we are asked whether we would want our personal data to be 100% secure the answer is almost always yes. In practice people would sacrifice some security for added convenience. The question is to which extent.
Already now we would not trust a bank whose online banking environment only uses a regular password. The thought alone that the only thing standing between a hacker and my money is knowing the name of my goldfish would make me take my business elsewhere.
Coming back to the very beginning of this post it is believed that 2015 will bring about the tipping point in adopting mobile 2-step verification driven by the increased concern for the security of personal data as well as resources.
In some cases is even predicted that 9 out of 10 service providers will embrace it as the new account security standard this year. In any case it is safe to say it will be not only used by financial institutions but all services (B2B or B2C) where a considerable amount of damage could be done by misusing your account.